HISTORY OF ECG
British physiologist Augustus D. Waller- St Mary’s Medical School, London, UK publishes the first human electrocardiogram.
GJ Burch of Oxford devises an arithmetical correction for the observed (sluggish) fluctuations of the electrometer. This allows the true waveform to be seen after tedious calculations.
Einthoven, completes the first accurate recording of the electrocardiogram as a clinical tool, and distinguishes five deflections which he names P, Q, R, S and T.
Willem Einthoven introduces the term ‘electrocardiogram’ at a meeting of the Dutch Medical Association. (Later he claims that Waller was first to use the term).
Einthoven publishes the first electrocardiogram recorded on a string galvanometer
Einthoven discusses commercial production of a string galvanometer with Max Edelmann of Munich and Horace Darwin of Cambridge Scientific Instruments Company of London.
Einthoven starts transmitting electrocardiograms from the hospital to his laboratory 1.5 km away via telephone cables. On March 22nd the first ‘telecardiogram’ is recorded.
Einthoven publishes the first organized presentation of normal and abnormal electrocardiograms recorded with a string galvanometer.
Edward Schafer of the University of Edinburgh is the first to buy a string galvanometer for clinical use.
Walter James, Columbia University and Horatio Williams, Cornell University Medical College, New York publish the first American review of electrocardiography.
Einthoven wins the Nobel prize for inventing the electrocardiograph.
Charles Wolferth and Francis Wood describe the use of exercise to provoke attacks of angina pectoris.
Charles Wolferth and Francis Wood describe the clinical use of chest leads.
Goldhammer and Scherf propose the use of the electrocardiogram after moderate exercise as an aid to the diagnosis of coronary insufficiency.
By joining the wires from the right arm, left arm and left foot with 5000 Ohm resistors Frank Wilson defines an ‘indifferent electrode’ later called the ‘Wilson Central Terminal’. The combined lead acts as an earth and is attached to the negative terminal of the ECG. An electrode attached to the positive terminal then becomes ‘unipolar’ and can be placed anywhere on the body. Wilson defines the unipolar limb leads VR, VL and VF where ‘V’ stands for voltage.
American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain define the standard positions, and wiring, of the chest leads V1 – V6. The ‘V’ stands for voltage.
Emanuel Goldberger increases the voltage of Wilson’s unipolar leads by 50% and creates the augmented limb leads aVR, aVL and aVF. When added to Einthoven’s three limb leads and the six chest leads we arrive at the 12-lead electrocardiogram that is used today.
Rune Elmqvist, Swedish engineer introduces the first ink jet printer for the transcription of analog physiological signals. He demonstrates its use in the recording of ECGs at the First International Congress of Cardiology in Paris in 1950.
The Holter monitor was released for commercial production – developed at the Holter Research Laboratory in Helena Montana by experimental physicists Norman J. Holter and Bill Glasscock.
Robert Bruce and colleagues describe their multistage treadmill exercise test later known as the Bruce Protocol.
Journal of Electrocardiography, the Official Journal of the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology and the International Society of Electrocardiology, is founded by Zao and Lepeschkin.
Hewlett Packard introduces its first commercial 12 lead ECG with interpretive analysis
Robert Zalenski, Professor of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University Detroit, and colleagues publish an influential article on the clinical use of the 15-lead ECG which routinely uses V4R, V8 and V9 in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. These additional leads increased the sensitivity of the electrocardiogram in detecting myocardial infarction.
HeartSciences, Incorporates and begins research and development of the first application-use of continuous wavelet transform signal processing for the electrocardiograph with the goal to significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of ECG performance in the early detection of heart disease
Partho Sengupta, Mt Sinai (New York, NY) begins clinical research using MyoVista hsECG device
HeartSciences obtains CE Mark approval and begins commercial launch of MyoVista hsECGTM devices throughout Europe, Middle East, Canada, Latin America, Asia-Pacific regions
MyoVista Energy Waveform is the ECG signal display after signal processing
- Vertical axis (y-axis) is frequency
- Horizontal axis (x-axis) is time
- Frequencies ranging from 3 Hz (bottom) to 200 Hz (top) (non-linear)
- Color scaling provides additional mapping of energy spread in the ECG signal
- Colors are designed to show relative energy level at each point in time and frequency
- Blue represents low relative energy, red represents high relative energy